What causes goose bumps?

same as my other questions!
i am within class and i need the answer!

Answer:    Goose bumps - are the bumps on a person's skin at the base of body hair which involuntarily develop when a person is cold or experiences strong emotions such as concern or awe. The reflex of producing goose bumps is known as horripilation, piloerection, or the pilomotor reflex. It occurs not just in humans but also in frequent other mammals; a prominent example are porcupines which raise their quills when threatened..
Definition of Goose bump

Goose bump: A provisional local change in the skin when it become rougher due to erection of little muscles, as from cold, fear, or excitement.

The chain of events prime to this skin change starts with a stimulus such as cold or agitation. That stimulus causes a nerve discharge from the sympathetic fearful system, a portion of the autonomic (involuntary) nervous system. The nerve discharge cause contraction of little muscles called the arrectores pilorum (the hair erector muscles). Contraction of these muscles elevate the hair follicles above the rest of the skin. And it is these tiny elevations we perceive as goose bumps.

The words used to describe this condition are curious and colorful. Goose bumps are also referred to as "gooseflesh." A fancier residence for this familiar phenomenon is "horripilation." Horripilation was compounded from the Latin "horrere", to stand on finish off + "pilus", hair = hair standing on cessation. (If you think "horripilation" sounds horrible, you're right. The word "horrible" also came from the Latin "horrere" and referred to something that be so awfully dreadfully frightful that it made your hair stand on come to an end.) Medicine does not use a horrible term such as "horripilation" and rarely resorts to the commonplace words, goose bumps or gooseflesh. Medicine have a special term, "cutis anserina" for goose bumps. But it goes vertebrae to the goose again, since "cutis", skin + "anser", goose = goose skin.

Some biologists believe that goose bumps evolved as part of the fight-or-flight reaction along next to heart rate increases that send the heart racing while blood rushes to the muscles to confer them additional oxygen. A similar phenomenon, bristling, in fur-covered animals may hold made them look larger and more frightening and kept them warmer by increasing the amount of air between hair which traps body heat. But in race there seems to be no practical purpose for goose bumps except, logically, to make our skin crawl.

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